Au premier un ensemble de cactus raquette ou opuntia. a l'arrière plan, le port de Barcelone et un gros paquebot.

Barcelone : Cactées vue sur mer

Les 6 hectares du jardin Mossen Costa i Llobrera s’étalent en bas de la colline de Montjuïc, côté mer. Dans ce lieu calme, au microclimat doux, il rassemble 800 espèces de cactées et plantes grasses du monde entier. Après une journée à arpenter les ruelles chargées d’histoire du Barri Gotic,

Les 6 hectares du jardin Mossen Costa i Llobrera s’étalent en bas de la colline de Montjuïc, côté mer. Dans ce lieu calme, au microclimat doux, il rassemble 800 espèces de cactées et plantes grasses du monde entier.

Après une journée à arpenter les ruelles chargées d’histoire du Barri Gotic, je vous assure qu’il fait bon se retrouver dans le jardin Mossen Costa i Llobrera. A flanc de colline, il fait face au port de commerce. Un paquebot est à quai déversant ses touristes en provenance de Gênes. Il y a peu de monde dans le jardin en cette fin d’après-midi. C’est le meilleur moment pour le visiter : l’ombre s’y fait rare. Les cactées préfèrent le soleil !

une allée en perspective, bordée de palmiers et de cactus.
Impressionnant le cactus cierge qui veut se faire aussi grand que les palmiers!

Préférez la descente

Au centre, un gros buisson aux épines blanches. Il s'agit de Cylindropuntia rosea.
Cylindropuntia rosea aux aiguillons spectaculaires.

Pour accéder au jardin, vous avez le choix entre plusieurs entrées, les deux plus aisées à trouver sont celle de la carretera de Miramar à deux pas de la Plaça de la Armada et celle à l’intérieur des jardins de Miramar, l’un des parcs publics, qui couvrent la colline, à côté de la Terraza Martinez. C’est par là que j’y suis arrivée. La visite commence par un beau panorama plongeant sur le jardin, le port et la mer et elle se fait en descente : c’est moins fatigant quand il fait chaud ! Allées larges, sentiers étroits, escaliers sillonnent l’espace et permettent d’accéder au plus près des plantes. Elles sont toutes plus extraordinaires les unes que les autres. Le spécimen le plus âgé ? Il a 200 ans. C’est un Oreocereus neocelsianus qui provient du Giardina esotica Pallanca à Bordighera près de la frontière italienne.

On n’a pas envie de s’y frotter !

Ensemble de coussins de belle mère (Echinocactus grusonii) qui donnent la sensation de dévaler la pente en serpentant entre des palmiers.
Coussins de belle mère (Echinocactus grusonii) au pied de palmiers.

On ne compte plus les coussins de belle-mère, hérissés d’aiguillons acérés, aux dimensions respectables. Les cactus cierges de toutes sortes jouent les sentinelles : parmi eux, l’étrange cactus « barbe de vieillard » et sa toison blanche qui s’entortille dans ses épines. Certains se ramifient et deviennent de véritables arbres comme le grand cactus cierge du Brésil. Les opuntias, appelés aussi « cactus raquette » arborent des raquettes vertes, bleutées, couvertes de longues épines ou de drôles de petits coussinets – tout aussi redoutables côté piquant ! Elles sont parfois ourlées de grosses fleurs aux couleurs chatoyantes ou de leurs « figues de Barbarie » colorées. Les agaves américains, gris bleuté ou panachés, géants, prennent des poses contorsionnées.

Un drôle de spécimen de Namibie

Une plante qui ressemble à un petit arbre avec un tronc renflé : il s'agit d'une plante à caudex, originaire de Namibie : Cyphostemma juttae
Plante à caudex, originaire de Namibie : Cyphostemma juttae

Les vrais cycas côtoient un de leurs cousins – Encephalartos altensteinii – dont les feuilles peuvent atteindre 4 m de long. Il est de la même famille que les zamioculcas vendus en plante d’appartement. Nichés parmi des crassulas, plus communes, une plante étrange arbore une silhouette de cep de vigne : un tronc court, épais, qui s’exfolie et des tiges en bouquet au sommet. Ses fleurs en grappe laissent progressivement la place à des fruits ovoïdes rougissants. C’est un Cyphostemma juttae, une plante à caudex c’est-à-dire qui fait des réserves d’eau dans son tronc épais. Une plante de Namibie qui peut tout de même atteindre 2 m de haut.

Un jardin 2.0 

panneau avec le nom de la plante et un flashcode pour en savoir plus...
Chaque plante insolite est signalée par ce type de panneau avec flashcode.

A proximité des plantes les plus insolites, vous trouverez un petit panneau vert à la signalétique du jardin. Grâce au flashcode qu’il porte, vous pourrez immédiatement satisfaire votre curiosité sur la plante ainsi étiquetée. Même si les cactées et plantes grasses sont spectaculaires, retournez-vous de temps à autre vers la mer : les points de vue sont superbes et méritent autant vos clichés que les végétaux!

Microclimat favorable

Ce jardin de cactées a été créé en 1970, en hommage au prêtre poète Miquel Costa i Llobera, originaire de Majorque. « Mossen » signifie « prêtre » en catalan. Imaginé par l’architecte Joan Maria Casamor et le botaniste, spécialiste des succulentes, Joan Panella, le jardin rassemble des plantes des régions désertiques et subdésertiques : Mexique, Chili, Afrique du Sud, Australie… Tous les continents sont représentés. Pourtant le climat barcelonais n’a rien de désertique, même avec le réchauffement climatique ! S’il est possible de cultiver ces espèces frileuses ici, c’est grâce à l’exposition particulière de l’endroit : bien ensoleillé et abrité des vents du nord par la colline. Les températures y sont de 2 à 3°C supérieures à celles de la ville. Des graviers clairs mettent en valeur les plantes et permettent de les isoler de l’humidité du sol – leur pire ennemie !

Pour découvrir un autre jardin de cactées, cliquez ici.

C’est où ?

A Barcelone, carretera de Miramar, Sants – Montjuïc. Ouvert tous les jours de 10 h au coucher du soleil. Gratuit.

  • En avion : nombreux vols au départ de diverses villes. La compagnie Vueling propose des vols à partir de 30 €. Un métro relie désormais l’aéroport au centre-ville.
  • En train : de Paris (6 h 15), de Lyon (5 h), de Toulouse (3 h 07) ou de Marseille (4 h 30)
  • En bus : nombreux départs quotidiens assurés par Eurolines ou Ouibus ; comptez 15 h et une centaine d’euros pour les premiers prix.
  • En voiture : à partir de Paris (10 h) par l’A10 (Bordeaux), puis l’A71 (Toulouse) et l’A9 (Barcelone).

Contact : www.barcelonaturisme.com

Pour prolonger le séjour…

Pour séjourner au vert, j’ai adoré le B&B The Patio, deux chambres d’hôtes coquettes donnant sur une cour végétalisée entre les quartiers Gracia et Eixample. Carrer del Rossello, 32, Barcelona. Chambre double avec petit déjeuner à partir de 80 €. Tél. : +34 934 19 67 57.

Pour grignoter, ne manquez pas le marché la Bocqueria, une institution qui existe depuis 800 ans sur la Rambla, l’artère qui relie le port à la place de la Catalunya. Ouvert du lundi au samedi. On peut manger sur le pouce dans de nombreuses échoppes.

65 thoughts on “Barcelone : Cactées vue sur mer

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